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Anchoring (1~3)

Updated:2007-11-19 12:08:49

1 All stone cladding panels anchored to a building are subject to:

(1) Gravity load (the weight of the stone panel).

(2) Applied load (wind load, structural and thermal movement, seismic movement). The location, shape, and size of all anchors must be designed and calculated to safely support the stone for all stresses to which they may be subjected (compression, tension, bending, torsion). Inducing excessive stresses in the stone must be avoided.

2 Loadbearing (gravity) anchors are recommended, if possible, to support stone cladding panels, under (or close to) the bottom bed.

Figure 2 Example For Combination Of Gravity And Laternal Load Support

 


In case of exposed heads above windows or in similar conditions where exposed gravity anchors are not allowed under the bottom bed of the stone panels, it is customary to use epoxied and doweled stone liners for interior work.

For exterior applications, stainless steel concealed supports should be designed
. Epoxied liners for exterior use should be avoided.
Figure 2 Example For Concealed Support


If epoxied liners or other epoxied stone components for exterior use can not be avoided, then the following shall be carefully considered:

     . keep the surfaces of the stone components to be epoxied together clean and dry
     . use specified epoxy and follow manufacturers recommendations. use clamps until epoxy is cured
     . use non corrosive mechanical connections (dowels) where possible, in addition to the application of epoxy, to prevent separation in case of improper workmanship, or failure of the epoxy.

For 2-12" thick or thicker cladding panels, the use of clip angles, or plates, placed in non-continuous slots, cut in the back of stone panels is recommended.

The veneer may be supported by properly designed stainless steel plug anchors drilled in the sides and engaged with stainless steel threaded rods supporting stainless steel clip angles. 

If plug anchors cannot be used because the sides are exposed, then the use of properly designed stainless threaded bent rods (often called "J" anchors) set in epoxy fill, in back of thin stone veneer is also an acceptable practice.

Stainless steel threaded bolt (called Cold Springs #31 anchor) seated in a matching routed slot in the back of the stone veneer also provides an excellent concealed anchor, when the stainless steel threaded bolt is attached to a stainless steel (or aluminum) clip angle, which could serve as a gravity and lateral supporting member.

It is recommended that when using a metal clip angle in the back of the stone engaged to a plug anchor, or to a "J" anchor, or to a #31 anchor, a "stressless" stainless steel or aluminum disc with a threaded hole should be screwed on hand-tight, with epoxy film facing the back of the stone slab, so that when the metal clip angle (or other device) is attached, it is tightened against the metal disc and not against the stone slab, preventing inducement of stress into the stone.

3 Lateral anchors are recommended in the joints, between the cladding panels. For conventionally installed stones lateral anchors are usually round anchors, or pins fitted into drilled holes, or strap anchors fitted into anchor slots in the edges of the stone. Sometimes it becomes necessary to provide concealed lateral anchors into the back of the stone which is connected and adjusted at the back of the stone panel. It is difficult to provide "blind" (concealed) anchors into solid masonry and, if possible, should be avoided.

Some anchors may be designed as lateral and gravity anchors, such as plug anchors, "J" anchors, or #31 anchors.

Other customized anchoring is described under "Pre-assembled Systems" and "Curtain wall Installations".

The number and distribution of the anchors should be determined by calculations and by the applicable code. Calculations shall be based on the forces to which the cladding will be subjected.

Modern stone fabrication technology makes possible the production of thin (1/4" to 1/2") stone veneer, which is installed using a "thin-set" method for interior use. Very thin stone, epoxied or honeycomb-backed, is also marketed, mainly where the weight of the panels must be limited. None of these very thin stones should be used for exterior installations, because of their very limited resistance to aging and weathering. Based on today's knowledge of the state-of-the-art, it is recommend that all stone panels for exterior installations be mechanically anchored.

(To be continued....)


source: Building Stone Institute

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