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Handling, Storing and Transportation

Updated:2007-11-19 14:39:23

1 Special care is needed in handling and storing stone slabs to prevent bowing, cracking, chipping, and staining. Supports shall be designed to avoid over-stressing or cracking of stone panels during storage and transportation. Stress concentration due to improper handling may interconnect micro or macro fractures of geological origin which may be present in the stone slabs. Moisture and thermal cycles may cause later distress and failure of such panels on the building facade.

Stone slabs should be properly palletized or crated on edge for safe transportation and for economic unloading and distribution. Non-containerized crates should be marked "fragile" and packed and handled with increased care due to the higher breakage hazard.

Pallets, crates, or pre-assembled panelized stones on trucks or in containers shall be carefully secured to prevent them from shifting. Pre-assembled panels for storing and shipping shall be designed so that the frame supports the stone and no load is transmitted through the connections to the stone slabs.

Unless stone slabs or pre-assembled panels are erected directly from the truck or trailer, ample room will be needed at the job site to distribute them reasonably close to where they will be installed. They should be distributed so their identification numbers are visible. Double handling, moving stone at the jobsite, will greatly increase the possibility of breakage or chipping.

Unloading of trucks or containers at the job site should also be done carefully. If a "cherry picker" or a mobile crane is used for unloading, a permit is usually required. Forklifts or monorails are also often used to unload trucks or container shipments. 

The method of storing stone on structural floors should also be carefully planned. Unpolished slabs, in particular, should be protected from staining. The storage areas should be adequate, accessible, and the moving of materials of other trades should be limited. Pre-loading floors should be in accordance with requirements set forth by the engineer of record.

When stone slabs are stacked, they should be separated with two non-staining skids placed approximately one-quarter of the way from each end of the slab. Skids should be placed directly above one another to prevent cracking or breakage.


Storing Slabs



2 Pre-assembly of stone on steel frames, curtainwall components or precast concrete is done in a shop under controlled conditions.

If possible, pre-assembled panels should be shipped in a position similar to the one in which they will be installed. For supporting seats, the use of special hard rubber pads is recommended. It is prudent to protect the stone from possible staining during transportation.


3
All cladding stone above the first course shall have lifting holes. Type and location of lifting holes shall be carefully designed for safety and clearly defined on the shop drawings or shop diagrams. Cutting lifting holes on the job site should be avoided. All stones shall have identification numbers for erection purposes and shall be shipped and stored in the sequence of erection.


source: Building Stone Institute

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