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You are here : Stone Home > Info Center > Stone Knowledge > Installation Methods-1. Horizontal installation

Installation Methods-1. Horizontal installation

Updated:2007-11-19 11:28:40
1.1 Steps, platforms and copings are usually installed in cement mortar.

1.2 Pavers may be of regular or irregular shapes and dimensions. The thickness of pavers depends on the type and strength of the stone, on the designed sizes, and on the nature of the support. Thin tiles of 12" square or 18" square are mostly used in 3/8" to 3/4" thickness for interior flooring and are set either in full cement mortar bed or with a "thin set" method utilizing a Latex admixture in the cement mortar, which is spread on the concrete floor with serrated trowels in an average of 1/8" to 3/16" thickness. Hairline, or 1/16" wide joints are mostly used for interior thin-set applications. Exterior pavers are usually larger than 2' square in size and their thickness can vary from 1-1/4" to as much as 4" depending on the intended use. As a rule of thumb, the cement mortar bed should more or less equal the thickness of the stone paver. No air pockets should be left under any of the pavers installed in a cement mortar bed. The use of Lime in the cement mortar bed is NOT recommended. Application of any Plaster of Paris for any part of the exterior flooring will be detrimental. Design of joint width for exterior pavers may vary from a minimum of 1/8" to 1/2", using cement mortar, or caulking. In case of cement mortar, expansion joints should be introduced approximately every 25 feet. The use of wire mesh reinforcing in the setting bed, and a slip sheet under the setting bed, is a matter of design consideration.

Figure 1.2 Example For "Thinset" Method On Concrete Slab



1.2.1 Interior stone pavers installed on a wood structure on top of plywood need special treatment because movement of the wood structure must be anticipated. To prepare more rigid support, the use of two layers of plywood is recommended-with the plywood joints not lined up with one another, but staggered. Bituminized felt paper and galvanized wire mesh should be tacked down to the double plywood floor and not less than a 1-1/2" thick mortar bed should be prepared using a mixture of 1 bag Portland Cement, 3 cu. ft. of clean sand, mixed with 3 gallons of Laticrete or approved equal of latex admixture.     Before placing the stone floor tiles on a wet screed bed, an approximate 1/16" thick latex based skim coat shall be applied to the back of each floor tile. Uniform joints of not less than 3/32" wide shall be maintained. After each piece is laid, it shall be tapped down using a wooden block to level the surface and imbed the stone. Care must be taken not to crack the floor tiles during the tapping. Joints are filled with Portland cement with, or without Latex reinforcing, and sealed with a squeegee. Movement joints shall be applied between the walls and the floor tiles.

As described in paragraph 3.2 marbles are classified into 4 groups for soundness. Group C and D marble tiles are often reinforced with nylon mesh set in an epoxy (or polyester resin) film on the back of the tile. Unless this film is ground off, the cement mortar bed, or the thinset mortar often separates because it does not adhere to the epoxy film properly
.

Figure 1.2.1 Example For Mortar Bed Method On Plywood Floor



1.2.2 For exterior pavers the use of a sand bed may be considered. Pavers installed with a sand-set method can easily be replaced, repaired, or adjusted. However, the sand-set method shall be used only with soil conditions that drain well and are stable with no settling. Proper compaction of a well draining sub-bed and sand setting bed is critical to prevent settling and moving. For stability a maximum 1" thick sand bed should be used with 1/16" wide joints which are swept with sand. The sand set method is NOT recommended for interior use.

1.2.3 For the installation of conventional stone paving the preparation of both the sub-surface and the stone pavers is equally important.

If the setting bed between the concrete slab surface and the bottom side of the stone pavers exceeds 2", concrete fill should be provided by the General Contractor. Concrete fill must be properly bonded to the concrete slab.

Concrete surfaces to receive stone flooring must be thoroughly cured, and free from soil, oil, and other extraneous materials.

Concrete slab (or concrete fill) shall be saturated with water, but free water must be removed prior to installation of mortar mix.

Mortar shall be prepared using the approved ratio of Portland cement and clean, damp sand with a minimum amount of water to produce a workable mass. Mortar must be used within one hour after mixing, without any additions or re-tempering.

A thin coating of Portland cement grout shall be troweled to the bed of the stone pavers immediately before each stone is laid.

Pavers shall be tapped into final place and made level without any air pockets left under the pavers and while the setting mortar is still pliable.

1.2.4 For pedestrian traffic on exterior plazas, terraces, promenades and roofs a pedestal paving system may be used to obtain a perfectly level walking surface with open joints, so that the rainwater or melting snow can drain to the sloping cavity under the pavers and lead to the drain holes. Presently three methods are used to provide drainage between the pavers and the waterproofed structure below.

None of the 3 methods described here provide support for vehicular traffic.

Manually operated vehicles, dollies, rolling pipe scaffolds may be used within the calculated load capacity of the pedestal paving system. 

(1) TREM proof King Pin Pedestals (by Tremco) have 4 adjustable     stone supports with about 1-1/4" adjustability in 1/16" increments. It     can provide a 10,000 lb working load (2500 lbs per adjustable     support) with zero permanent deformation when supported by a     non-compressible base. To insure uniform joints the use of 60 to     70 durometer neoprene cross spacers is recommended at the joint     intersections. For prevention of "moving up" one side of the cross     spacers could be self adhered, or silicon caulking may be installed     above the cross spacers, flush with the finished stone surface.

Figure 1.2.4 (1) TREMCO King Pin Pedestal


(2) Terra System One (by Wausau Tile) is composed of a number     of components such as tabs, shims, pedestals, reducers,     spacers, extenders, etc. Designed to provide level surfaces above     sloping sub-surfaces the pedestal cavities are filled with specially     blended concrete to provide total and complete support.

(3) PAVE-EL (by Envirospec). This pedestal system also elevates     the pavers to provide a drainage plane between the pavers and the     supporting structure below. Pave-El pedestal is a grid-like structure     of high density polyethylene with integral spacer ribs for either 1/8"     wide joints or for 1/4" wide joints. It also has leveling plates over the     pedestal to eliminate minor deck or paver discrepancies.

Figure 1.2.4 (3) PAVE-EL Pedestal System By ENVIROSPEC



Each of the three types of pedestal methods described above may be installed directly to the membrane, using protection boards, or over high density (125 psi) rigid insulation board.

At larger joints burning cigarette butts may cause damage to the rigid insulation. Insulation is the weakest link of the pedestal system, when the pedestals are installed on rigid insulation.


source: Building Stone Institute
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