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Stone Types

Updated:2007-11-14 13:19:53
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The two most basic types of stone used in the construction and building industry are natural stone such as marble, granite, or limestone and synthetic stones that consist of stone chips suspended in cement or resin mix.

Natural stone can be grouped into three classes. Igneous rock is formed when molten rock (called lava or magma) cools and hardens. Granite is an example of an igneous rock. Sedimentary rock is formed from biological deposits that have undergone consolidation and crystallization. Limestone and sandstone fall into this category. Metamorphic rock is formed when other kinds of rocks are changed by great heat and pressure inside the earth. Marble, slate, and quartzite are examples of metamorphic rocks.

GRANITE An igneous stone that is extremely hard, dense and resistant to scratches and acid etching. It is an ideal stone for use in flooring and in food preparation areas. Hundreds of varieties of granite exist.

MARBLE A derivative of limestone, marble is a metamorphic stone that can be polished. Marble is characteristically soft and easily scratched or etched by acids. There are countless types of marble from around the world.

LIMESTONE A sedimentary stone formed from calcite and sediment that comes in a variety of earthen colours.

SANDSTONE This sedimentary stone is primarily composed of loose grains of quartz sand that are rough in texture. A number of varieties are available.

TRAVERTINE A crystallized, partially metamorphosed limestone, which because of its structure, can be filled and honed and is dense enough to be a type of marble.

SLATE This metamorphic stone has a sheet-like structure composed of clay, quartz, and shale and comes in a multitude of colours including reds and greens.

AGGLOMERATE STONE This synthetic stone is made from natural stone chips suspended in a binder such as cement, epoxy resins, or polyester. The most well known agglomerated stone is poured-in-place terrazzo, used in building for thousands of years.


source: Natural Stone Care

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